Grafting trees is a very important and useful activity. What is coloring and how to plant garden plants correctly – We will tell you based on my own experience.
Any gardener will be happy to enjoy the fruits of his labor. Especially when there will be as many fruits as possible, when the trees will bear fruit for a long time, and any variety will take root quickly and without problems. All difficulties on the site are completely solvable if you know what vaccination is and practice it.
As an experienced gardener, we consider it my duty to assure you that grafting fruit trees is a panacea for all problems. And even if you have never done anything like this, believe me, you should not be afraid and panic, you will succeed.
Where to begin
Actually, let’s first clarify what tree coloring is? The grafting procedure is the transfer of particles of one plant species to another in order to obtain a future crop of a new variety.
Grafting will help if you want to reduce the waiting time for the first harvest from 5-10 years to 3-5. As an experienced gardener, we can say that this is not a myth. For enthusiasts, the fact that one day it will be able to disfigure several varieties of apples or pears at once may seem attractive. Grafting trees that have a hard time bearing fruit in your area will help them adjust and adapt to the climate more quickly. But, among other things, grafting fruit trees is also a fascinating activity, even for beginner gardeners.
Now let’s look at what plays a major role in the coloring process. Rootstock, scion and cambium take part in the operation.
- A graft is, if explained in simple terms, the very particle that is transferred to another plant. The function of a scion can be performed by a small twig, stem, or even a ripe bud.
- A rootstock is a place where a scion is attached, that is, a plant or a certain part of it for engraftment. This is, as it were, the foundation for the scion, which must be responsible for nutrition, modification of the structure of the scion and further fusion of both organisms.
- Cambium are the educational cells of the plant, which are found in the roots and stems, and are responsible for the tree’s ability to “heal” its wounds.
During the grafting operation, the incised parts of the scion and rootstock should be superimposed in such a way that the layers of the cambium fit together as closely as possible. And the secret of their fusion is quite simple: wounds were inflicted on both trees, with which they will come into contact with each other. Cambium cells will begin to actively multiply and secrete a sticky substance – callus, which is the main “relative” that forms a new conductive tissue.
What to use
Even a sawn stump from an old tree is suitable for the role of a stock, but the graft will take root much faster on a young tree. It can easily be a wild or just a variety that you don’t like, moreover, even a broken tree is a good fit for such an experiment.
The main role in this whole story will be played by the choice of the right tree for the scion. It is always worth choosing a tree or bush that has managed to prove itself “in all its glory” – it has given a rich harvest and excellent fruits for a long time. Naturally, the grafted part will always be at the top and it is she who will be responsible for the taste of the crop.
Further, it should be understood that the vaccination is divided into spring and winter, and the cuttings for grafting must be carefully prepared since November, before severe frosts. If you missed the moment, you still have the whole winter ahead of you and a little spring time before the buds swell. Summer vaccination provides for the preparation of the scion almost before the operation itself, the main thing is that the base of your scion is stiff.
The secret of success in this horticultural business is in the correct selection of scion and rootstock, in the language of professionals – horticultural kinship, which is also divided into subparagraphs.
There are three types that are easier to explain with examples:
- Intraspecific vaccinations – one variety of apples is crossed with another, or some varieties of cherries;
- Interspecific vaccinations – crossing cherries and sweet cherries or plums with cherry plums;
- Internatal vaccinations – an apple with an apricot or a peach with a plum, and so on.
Naturally, the easiest way, even for an inexperienced gardener, is to cross trees of the same species among themselves. They take root faster, and require less scrupulous care, and intergeneric vaccinations often end in nothing even for experienced gardeners.
Take a very responsible approach to grafting trees or bushes, because a new variety of fruits or berries that you have invented and grown is already a big responsibility not only for the tree itself, but also for your relatives, to whom you will present the fruits of your labor.